Common Blood Tests and Their Meanings
|White Blood Cells (WBC)||Fight Infection||↑Infection, acute stress|
|Red Blood Cells (RBC)||Carry Oxygen and waste products||↑Excess red blood cells production, ↓anemia|
|Hemoglobin (Hgb)||Carries Oxygen and removes carbon dioxide from body||↑Excess red blood cell production, ↓anemia|
|Hematocrit (Hct)||%RBC in the blood||↑Excess red blood cell production, ↓anemia|
|MVC||Measures size of RBC||Useful in classifying anemias|
|MCH||Measures amount of hemoglobin||Useful in classifying anemias|
|RDW||Mathematical calculation measuring the width of RBC’s|
|Platelet Count||Involved in clotting|
|Differential (% and Absolute Granulocytes, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, and Basophils)||Different types of WBC’s||Adnormal counts may mean viral infections, bacterial infections, or allergies|
|Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)||Speed of settling of red blood cells||↑Inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic diseases|
|Fast from 10-12 hours
May drink small amount of water (annually)
|Important in assessing risk for coronary heart disease and stroke|
|Cholesterol||Diet is major source|
|HDL “good cholesterol”||Predictor of cardiovascular risk; Helps prevent buildup of cholesterol on artery walls.||↑ HDL Cholesterol = ↓risk of heart disease|
|Triglycerides||Main storage form of lipids||↑Risk of plaque on arteries|
|Calculated LDL “bad cholesterol”||Cholesterol deposits on artery walls||↑Risk of heart disease recommended <100|
|Basic Metabolic Profile (BMP) is a combination of the following tests:
Electorlytes-Sodium(Na), Potassium (K), Chloride(Cl)
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
|Maintain osmotic pressure and fluid balance,
Maintain proper pH,
Regulation of proper function of heart and other muscles.
Body’s main source of energy, blood sugar.
Waste produced by liver and excreted by kidney.
Waste produced by liver and excreted by kidney.
Waste in muscles and blood A blood gas; Important to body’s acid-base balance
Proper function of nerves, enzymes, muscles and blood clotting.
|Sodium: Severe hydration, excessive salt intake, ↓congestive heart failure, kidney disease, vomiting, diarrhea, diuretics.
Potassium: ↑renal disease, uncontrolled diabetes, GI loss, diuretics.
Chloride: ↑dehydration, hyperventilation, renal disease, ↓vomiting, over-hydration, congestive failure.
Glucose: ↑diabetes, ↓hypoglycemia
BUN: ↑kidney disease
Creatinine: ↑kidney disease
CO2: ↑hyperventilation, uncontrolled diabetes, ↓emphysema, prolonged vomiting.
Calcium: ↑Hyperparathyroidism, multiple myeloma, bone disease. ↓Hypoparathyroidism, Vitamin D
|Uric Acid||Waste product made in liver and excreted by kidneys||↑Gout, kidney disease|
|Microalbumin (Urine test)||Contributes to identification and treatment of kidney disease|
|Alkaline Phosphatase||Enzyme in bone and liver||↑In diseases of the bone and liver|
|SGOT||Enzyme in liver and heart||↑Hepatitis, mono, liver cirrhosis, heart attack (MI)|
|SGPT||Enzyme in liver||↑Hepatitis, obstructive jaundice, cirrhosis of liver|
|Bilirubin||Waste product from breakdown of hemoglobin||↑Liver disease, increased bilirubin production|
|Total Protein and Albumin||Overall health and nutrition. Albumin is an important in fluid regulation and as a transport mechanism.||↑Dehydration
(every 3 mo/6 mo/year depending on result)
|Measure the amount of glucose chemically attached to your red blood cells, tells what your blood sugar has averaged over the last 6 to 8 weeks.||↑Indicates poor diabetes control.
(normal range 4.5 – 5.7%)
|PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen)||Protein produced specifically by prostate cells||↑Benign hyperplasia, Prostatitis
|Thyroid Function Tests:|
|T4||A hormone of the thyroid gland that influences metabolic rate.||↑Hyperthyroidism
|TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)||Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which regulates the thyroid gland|
|DEXAscan||X-Ray used to measure Bone Mineral Density to detect osteoporosis||Osteopenia
|Mammogram||An x-ray of your breate to detect breast cancer.|
|Dilated Eye Exam (Annual)||Eye exam with pupils dilated. Reduces the risk of complications/early detection||Blurred vision, reduced blood flow to retina, blindness|
|Foot Exam||Early detection of foot problems||Pain, loss of sensation, unhealed wounds, amputation|
|Blood Pressure||Normal 120/80
|↑Hypertension – complications such as kidney disease, glucose intolerance, high cholesterol, heart disease & stroke.
To be done at least 6 hrs after last dose of Digoxin
|Digoxin is a drug used to treat some heart problems||↑Toxicity
↓Not as effective with heart function
(yearly blood test to check Amt in your body)
|Dilantin is a medication for controlling seizures (yearly blood test/maintenance level)||↑Level decreased coordination, confusion, ↓level seizure activity|
|Protime||Test the Warfarin or Coumadin effect in your body. These drugs are used to prevent the clotting of blood||↑Bleeding
↓Clotting of blood